Amazon Web Services : M5 vs M5a vs M6g

AWS M5 / M5a / M6g Benchmak

In other words Intel vs AMD vs ARM. AWS recently released Graviton series for all their main instance types: R6g with extended memory, C6g for compute optimized and M6g for general purpose. Their offering has always been based on Intel but in the past years we saw AMD and now with Graviton 2 making AWS is based on their own chips.

Amazon Web services announces their Graviton processors as a new choice for their customers for increase their performance for a lower cost. But what’s the difference between all these solutions identical on the paper ? Let’s do CPU benchmark to answer it.

Specification

For our benchmark, we took 8CPU-32GB VM from each series:

Product Price CPU Frequency
m5.2xlarge 0.38 Intel(R) Xeon(R) Platinum 8175M
Intel(R) Xeon(R) Platinum 8259CL
2.5-3.2GHz
m5a.2xlarge 0.34 AMD EPYC 7571 2.4-3.0GHz
m6g.2xlarge 0.31 aarch64 N/A

These data are collected by our Cloud Transparency Platform, prices are for us-east (N. Virginia) region.

Performance testing

Prime number search with sysbench CPU

Sysbench CPU can be categorized as arithmetic operations on integer.

We can observe an increase of +100% on single thread and close to 400% between M5 and M6g with 8 threads.

Encryption with AES-256 CBC

Where AMD’s performance depends of block size, Intel and Graviton are homogeneous across sizes. The ARM chip is able to encrypt at 1.2 GB/sec where the M5 and M5a respectively cap at 400MB/sec (200%)  and 900MB/sec (130%).

Price

Product Hourly Monthly
(estimation)
Yearly
(estimation)
Discount
m5.2xlarge 0.38 280 3,360
m5a.2xlarge 0.34 251 3,012 -11%
m6g.2xlarge 0.31 224 2,688 -22%

Monthly is based on 730 hours, yearly on 8,760 hours without long term subscription

Prices make no doubt, each new generation offers a lower cost and M6g owns the lowest.

Conclusion

Depending of your workload, Graviton offers until +400% of performance compared to the Intel analogous. Combined with a lower pricing, M6G is definitively the best EC2 choice for any CPU related workload compatible with ARM architecture.


Check out data in our Public Cloud Reference


AWS and the volume equation

Despite being one of the the worldwide most used block storage solution, Amazon’s General Purpose SSD is far away from being a general and versatile solution. Unlike other providers selling volumes based on device type and an hourly price per gigabytes, AWS made the choice to create products adapted to usages.

EBS : The Block Storage solutions

Behind the name of Elastic Block Store, 5 storage classes are available:

  • Magnetic: Historical Block Storage solution provided by AWS. As its name indicates, this product is powered-up by spinning disk making it inherently slow: 200 IOPS and 100 MB/s. But in the end of 2000s, it wasn’t a low-cost but a general purpose.
  • Throughput Optimized: Dedicated to large chunk processing, this product aims an optimal throughput. Still with HDD but efficient for Big Data or log processing.
  • Cold HDD: In the same branch than Throughput Optimized but with lower price and performance. Useful for data with less frequently accessed volume like cached data storage.
  • General Purpose SSD: This is the common volume type used by consumers and shouldn’t be taken as a standard SSD Block Storage. Firstly GP-SSD, is capped at 16KIOPS which is pretty low for an intensive workload. Secondly, its maximum performance are constrained by a credit system not letting you benefits permanently from the best performance. These both arguments make GP-SSD more appropriate for non-intensive workloads that do not require permanent charge.
  • Provisioned IOPS SSD: It’s an answer to the changing performance of General Purpose. This product allows user to define and pay for an amount of maximum IOPS going up to 64KIOPS. It makes possible storage-bound workloads but at a high price of $0.065 per provisioned IOPS.

Local storage

Block Storage isn’t the only one solution provided by Amazon Web Services, since I3 series, local NVMe-SSD are available for High-IOPS workloads. Let’s compare similar solutions on paper: i3.large vs r5.large + 500GB GP SSD.

Flavor CPU RAM Storage Monthly price
i3.large 2 16 475GB local NVMe-SSD $135
r5.large 2 16 General Purpose SSD $168.4

As you can see on table and chart below, for an equivalent solution in term of basic specifications, it’s much more worth opt in for the i3. Also, the NVMe devices are attached locally to I3 VMs without block storage creating a real gap in terms of IOPS and latency:

Features matter a lot

To do the a comparison of Block versus Local storage is inappropriate without taking in account features. In fact, despite its general lower performance Block Storage is a key component of Clouds’ flexibility and reliability. Where a Local device may focus on latency, Block is attractive by all its features such as snapshot/backups, replication, availability and more.
Here a small comparative table outlining general pro and cons:

Block Local
Latency Low to high Very low
IOPS Low to high High to very high
Replication Yes
SLA Yes
Price Low to very high Included with instance
Size Up to +16TB Fixed at instance startup
Persistence Unlimited Instance lifespan
Hot-plug Yes No

We see that there are clearly 2 usages: A non-guaranteed high performance and a flexible one.